Excerpted in part from Kids Online: Protecting Your Children In Cyberspace by Donna Rice Hughes Revell, September While there are many ways that pornography harms children, I want to assure you that every child who views pornography will not necessarily be affected and, at worst, traumatized in the same way.
First, the police continue to misapply the "no-crime" or "unfounding" criteria. Studies by Kelly et al. Rumney notes that some officers seem to "have fixed views and expectations about how genuine rape victims should react to their victimization". He adds that "qualitative research also suggests that some officers continue to exhibit an unjustified scepticism of rape complainants, while others interpret such things as lack of evidence or complaint withdrawal as 'proof' of a false allegation".
Rumney's second conclusion is that it is impossible to "discern with any degree of certainty the actual rate of false allegations" because many of the studies of false allegations have adopted unreliable or untested research methodologies.
He argues, for instance, that in addition to their small sample size, the studies by Maclean and Stewart used questionable criteria to judge an allegation to be false.
MacLean deemed reports "false" if, for instance, the victim did not appear "dishevelled" and Stewart, in one instance, considered a case disproved, stating that "it was totally impossible to have removed her extremely tight undergarments from her extremely large body against her will".
Lisak stated that many of the stats are misleading upon investigation and "when the sources of these estimates are examined carefully it is clear that only a fraction of the reports represent credible studies and that these credible studies indicate far less variability in false reporting rates.
Kanin of Purdue University investigated the incidences of false rape allegations made to the police in one small urban community in the Midwest United States population 70, between and He states that unlike in many larger jurisdictions, this police department had the resources to "seriously record and pursue to closure all rape complaints, regardless of their merits".
He further states each investigation "always involves a serious offer to polygraph the complainants and the suspects" and "the complainant must admit that no rape had occurred. She is the sole agent who can say that the rape charge is false". After reviewing the police files, Kanin categorized the false accusations into three broad motivations: This categorization was supported by the details of complainant recantations and other documentation of their cases.
No polygraphs were used, the investigations were the sole responsibility of a ranking female officer, and a rape charge was only counted as false under complainant recantation.
In this sample, the motivations mentioned above were roughly evenly split between alibi and revenge, with only one case characterized as attention-seeking.
He states, "Kanin's article on false allegations is a provocative opinion piece, but it is not a scientific study of the issue of false reporting of rape. It certainly should never be used to assert a scientific foundation for the frequency of false allegations. The department classified reports as false which the complainant later said were false, but Lisak points out that Kanin's study did not scrutinize the police's processes or employ independent checkers to protect results from bias.
These procedures include the "serious offer", in this department, of polygraph testing of complainants, which is viewed as a tactic of intimidation that leads victims to avoid the justice process  and which, Lisak says, is "based on the misperception that a significant percentage of sexual assault reports are false".
The reliability of these findings may be somewhat bolstered by the fact that the police appeared to record the details and circumstances of the fabrications. Rumney questions the reliability of Kanin's study stating that it "must be approached with caution".
He argues that the study's most significant problem is Kanin's assumption "that police officers abided by departmental policy in only labeling as false those cases where the complainant admitted to fabrication. He does not consider that actual police practice, as other studies have shown, might have departed from guidelines.
Incorrect assumptions about false rape allegations increases the likelihood that a person who reports rape will be blamed or disbelieved. As a result, the people commonly had a difficult time believing someone they know or like is a rapist, and this could contribute to the idea that the person who reported the rape is at fault.
False stories tend to be quick and straightforward with few details or complex interactions, and usually involve only vaginal intercourse. Some behaviors associated with lying by juries is actually typical of true rapes, including kissing or a previous relationship with the rapist.
True rape reports often include many details rarely seen in media or false rape reports, for example pseudo-intimate actions, detailed verbal interactions and an otherwise wide range of behaviors besides simply face-to-face vaginal intercourse.
Vogel concludes that the high focus on false allegations could contribute to the myth that rapes are rare and false reports are common, when the facts do not back up those perceptions. Another report identified charging decisions involving allegations of false accusations of rape and an additional 11 false allegations of both domestic violence and rape between January and May and found of these cases, 35 were prosecuted based upon false accusations of rape.
A further 3 were prosecuted based upon charges of false accusations of both rape and domestic abuse. The report did not indicate the verdicts following prosecution.
Wells wrote Southern Horrors: Wells had initially believed, like many people, that individuals who had been lynched were guilty of the crimes they were accused of.
She wrote, "Like many another person who had read of lynching in the South, I had accepted the idea meant to convey -- that although lynching was irregular and contrary to law and order, unreasoning anger of the terrible crime of rape led to the lynching; that perhaps the brute deserved death anyhow and the mob was justified in taking his life.
In she published The Red Record which included statistics of lynchings This showed that rape and murder were the two most common reasons used to justify lynchings.
Wells found little evidence that black men were lynched because they had committed rape.Epidemic: America's Trade in Child Rape [Lori Handrahan] on metin2sell.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The problem of child sex abuse and its cover-up is real. A generation of American children are being destroyed. If you think this happens to . An orientation training session at the Youthful Offender System prison in Pueblo, Colorado, As recently as five years ago, American corrections officials almost uniformly denied that rape in prison was a widespread problem.
A false accusation of rape is the reporting of a rape where no rape has occurred. It is difficult to assess the true prevalence of false rape allegations, but it is generally agreed that, for about 2% to 10% of rape allegations, a thorough investigation establishes that no crime was committed or attempted.
The Injury Center works through its funded programs and activities to collaborate with national organizations, state health agencies, and other key groups to develop, implement, and promote effective injury and violence prevention and control practices.
Excerpted in part from Kids Online: Protecting Your Children In Cyberspace by Donna Rice Hughes (Revell, September ) While there are many ways that pornography harms children, I want to assure you that every child who views pornography will not necessarily be affected and, at .
Nov 28, · College men's exposure to pornography is nearly universal, with growing viewing rates nationwide. Substantial research documents the harmful effects of mainstream, sadomasochistic, and rape pornography on men's attitudes and behavior related to sexual assault.
The present study surveyed 62% of the fraternity population at a Midwestern public university on their pornography viewing habits.