Non-governmental organizations NGOs have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. But the term NGO encompasses a vast category of groups and organizations. The World Bank, for example, defines NGOs as private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development. NGOs are typically value-based organizations which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service.
Definitions[ edit ] Community Capacity Development in Brazil where a local, Portuguese-speaking journalist was consulted in advance of the training, regarding the media landscape in Brazil Many organizations interpret community capacity building in their own ways and focus on it rather than promoting two-way development in developing nations.
Fundraising, training centers, exposure visit, office and documentation support, on the job training, learning centers and consultants are all some forms of capacity building. To prevent international aid for development from becoming perpetual dependency, developing nations are adopting strategies provided by the organizations in the form of capacity building.
Since the early 70s the UNDP offered guidance for its staff and governments on what was considered "institution building". The UNISDR defines capacity development in the DRR domain as "the process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capability over time to achieve social and economic goals, including through improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions — within a wider social and cultural enabling environment.
The UNDP defines capacity building as a long-term continual process of development that involves all stakeholders; including ministries, local authorities, non-governmental organizations, professionals, community members, academics and more.
Capacity building uses a country's human, scientific, technological, organizational, and institutional and resource capabilities.
The goal of capacity building is to tackle problems related to policy and methods of development, while considering the potential, limits and needs of the people of the country Assess contribution of ngos to the. The UNDP outlines that capacity building takes place on an individual level, an institutional level and the societal level.
It also calls for the establishment of conditions that will allow individuals to engage in the "process of learning and adapting to change".
It should not involve creating new institutions, rather modernizing existing institutions and supporting them in forming sound policies, organizational structures, and effective methods of management and revenue control. Holding similar views to the UNDP about systems nature of capacity, Wakely also believed that thinking about capacity building as simply training or human resource development was too limiting and that there needed to be a shift from that mindset .
He believed increasing the capacity of the individual was not enough to contribute to the advancement of sustainable development alone, and needed to be paired with a supportive institutional and organizational environment . The three aspects of capacity building that Wakely believed essential to creating better cities are human resource development, organizational development, and institutional development .
Human resource development defined as "the process of equipping people with the understanding and skills, and access to the information and knowledge to perform effectively", and is where Wakely believes too much emphasis and efforts are focused here .
Organizational development involves the processes of how things get done within an organization and requires examining how and why an organization does something and what could be improved.
Institutional development is the "legal and regulatory changes" that must be made in order for organizations to enhance their capacities . Community capacity building is defined as the "process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world.
Infrastructure development has been considered "economic capacity building" because it increases the capacity of any developed or developing society to improve trade, employment, economic development and quality of life History[ edit ] The term "community capacity building" has evolved from past terms such as institutional building and organizational development.
In the s and s these terms referred to community development that focused on enhancing the technological and self-help capacities of individuals in rural areas. In the s, following a series of reports on international development an emphasis was put on building capacity for technical skills in rural areas, and also in the administrative sectors of developing countries.
In the s the concept of institutional development expanded even more. Institutional development was viewed as a long-term process of building up a developing country's government, public and private sector institutions, and NGOs.
The emergence of capacity building as a leading development concept in the s occurred due to a confluence of factors: New philosophies that promoted empowerment and participation, like Paulo Freire 's Education for Critical Consciousnesswhich emphasized that education, could not be handed down from an omniscient teacher to an ignorant student; rather it must be achieved through the process of a dialogue among equals.
Commissioned reports and research during the s, like the Capacity and Vulnerabilities Analysis CVA which posited three assumptions: In response, a series of "social dimension adjustments were enacted".
The growing wealth gap coupled with "social dimension adjustments" allowed for an increased significance for NGOs in developing states as they actively participated in social service delivery to the poor. Then, in the s a new emphasis was placed on the idea of sustainable development.
During debates about how to achieve sustainable development, it has become commonplace to include discussions about local community empowerment as well as "related concepts of participation, ownership, agency, and bottom up planning" .
In order to empower local communities to be self-sustaining, capacity building has become a crucial part towards achieving sustainable development . Many NGOs and developmental organizations end up inducing chronic aid dependency within communities by doing developmental projects for the communities rather than in partnership with them .
Reports like the CVA and ideas like those of Freire from earlier decades emphasized that "no one could develop anyone else" and development had to be participatory. These arguments questioned the effectiveness of " service delivery programs " for achieving sustainable development, thus leading the way for a new emphasis on "capacity building.
In developing societies[ edit ] In the UNDP 's — "strategic plan for development" capacity building is the "organization's core contribution to development".
The UNDP promotes a capacity building approach to development in the countries it is active in. It focuses on building capacity on an institutional level and offers a six—step process for systematic capacity building.Oct 31, · Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.
I write skeptically about science, public policy, media and NGOs. Share to facebook Share to . Even though the term "non-governmental organization" implies independence from governments, many NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. A quarter of the US$ million income in of the famine-relief organization Oxfam was donated by the British government and the EU.
The role and impact of NGOs in capacity development From replacing the state to reinvigorating education Inger Ulleberg International Institute for Educational Planning. 1 the operation of non-governmental organizations (ngos) in a world of corporate and other codes of conduct i.
the growing role and importance of ngos. Envisioning the United Nations in the Twenty-first Century Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on the United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century.
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