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Introduction The backdrop for the study reported in this paper is a long-term interest in the role of social ties and community in influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by language use.
The database used for this is a network of eighteenth-century men and women in London between approximately andcentred on Joseph Addison — and represented by an electronic corpus of early eighteenth-century texts written by members of this network Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts.
Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the ways in which the associations that are formed by actors, such as coalitions, support the pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects.
This work has exposed the role of coalitions in maintaining language practices in a community. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres. The question is how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks.
For example, it is interesting to ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the wider community of periodical writers.
In this instance, it would be interesting to examine the extent to which people outside the social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the Spectator writers.
I submit that social networks provide the scaffolding for the study of discourse communities in a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. However, they do suggest that the last decades of the seventeenth century set the conditions in which writers begin to conceive the particularly interactive — what I have called the intersubjective — style of appeal and address to the reader that typifies the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and Tatler.
The periodical essay is recognized, to all intents and purposes, as a new genre in the early eighteenth century. I am interested in examining the extent to which members of the social network participate in the practices of a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period.
In order to compare the roles of social networks and discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and use of a set of linguistic features in the letters and essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus.
This study will allow us to ascertain the extent to which writers adhere to styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of writing a particular genre or register however implicitly. The research questions for the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and their development as discourse markers you say, you know, see in letters and prose drama using the ARCHER corpus Fitzmaurice It also builds on my study of the grammar of stance in the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of modal expressions, epistemic and attitudinal stance verbs — hope, think, know, wish, desire — with complement clauses Fitzmaurice In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the NEET corpus to explore the use of stance verbs with both first and second person subjects as comment clauses in essays.
As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to expect them to diffuse into different registers.
Fitzmauricedemonstrated that these expressions do occur in the involved, subject-centred register of letters. The following questions thus guide the study: How does the distribution of first person stance verbs know, see, say in letters compare with that in essays produced by the same actors?
Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose, imagine and find for use in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in essays as well as in letters?
To what extent can the distribution and use of first and second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the linguistic practices and choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the most tentative and exploratory, and perhaps can be only partially addressed by the work reported in this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of choices that together distinguish the genre of the discourse community.
In the sections that follow I first discuss social networks and the ways in which the periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and then present and discuss the findings and offer some directions for further investigation.
Social networks and discourse communities Social networks analysis SNA provides the basis for examining the ways in which actors cooperate in specific projects in order to achieve certain goals. A social networks approach examines the ways in which the nature of ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour.
Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the maintenance and strengthening of linguistic norms. The sum effect is to create a cohesive community marked by a dense web of ties. In the literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the adherence to linguistic norms.
The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to somebody that nobody else in the network is connected to.Advisors of the age of reason: The periodical essays of Steele, Addison, Johnson, and Goldsmith Carol Meyers Illinois Wesleyan University This Article is brought to you for free and open access by The Ames Library, the Andrew W.
Mellon Center for Curricular and Faculty Development, the Office of the Provost and the Office of the President. Joseph addison and richard steele periodical essays on success.
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Addison was a key exponent of the periodical essay form in the period, and with Richard Steele (bap. , d.
), launched one of the most successful examples of the eighteenth-century periodical. The aim of the periodical essay, as handled by Steele and Addison, was in the words of Davis Deices, "frankly educative." The two co-workers set the tone for the periodicals to come, and made it a landmark in the literary history of England.
Joseph addison and richard steele periodical essays on friendship. 4 stars based on 71 reviews metin2sell.com Essay. Posted on November 18, in Joseph addison and richard steele periodical essays on friendship 0 comments.
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