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History[ edit ] Long before the invention of electronic signal processingsome people tried to build machines to emulate human speech. In the German - Danish scientist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts for models he built of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds in International Phonetic Alphabet notation: InCharles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design, and inJoseph Faber exhibited the " Synthisis essay ".
In Paget resurrected Wheatstone's Synthisis essay. Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories built the Pattern playback in the late s and completed it in There were several different versions of this hardware device; only one currently survives.
The machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments consonants and vowels.
It consisted of a stand-alone computer hardware and a specialized software that enabled it to read Italian. A second version, released inwas also able to sing Italian in an "a cappella" style.
Dominant systems in the s and s were the DECtalk system, based largely on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT, Synthisis essay the Bell Labs system;  the latter was one of the first multilingual language-independent systems, making extensive use of natural language processing methods.
Early electronic speech-synthesizers sounded robotic and were often barely intelligible. The quality of synthesized speech has steadily improved, but as of [update] output from contemporary speech synthesis systems remains clearly distinguishable from actual human speech.
Kurzweil predicted in that as the cost-performance ratio caused speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible, more people would benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. Noriko Umeda et al. Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel One of the first was the Telesensory Systems Inc.
The Milton Bradley Company produced the first multi-player electronic game using voice synthesis, Miltonin the same year.
Synthesizer technologies[ edit ] The most important qualities of a speech synthesis system are naturalness and intelligibility.
The ideal speech synthesizer is both natural and intelligible. Speech synthesis systems usually try to maximize both characteristics. The two primary technologies generating synthetic speech waveforms are concatenative synthesis and formant synthesis.
Each technology has strengths and weaknesses, and the intended uses of a synthesis system will typically determine which approach is used. Concatenative synthesis Concatenative synthesis is based on the concatenation or stringing together of segments of recorded speech.
Generally, concatenative synthesis produces the most natural-sounding synthesized speech. However, differences between natural variations in speech and the nature of the automated techniques for segmenting the waveforms sometimes result in audible glitches in the output.
There are three main sub-types of concatenative synthesis. Unit selection synthesis[ edit ] Unit selection synthesis uses large databases of recorded speech. During database creation, each recorded utterance is segmented into some or all of the following: Typically, the division into segments is done using a specially modified speech recognizer set to a "forced alignment" mode with some manual correction afterward, using visual representations such as the waveform and spectrogram.
At run timethe desired target utterance is created by determining the best chain of candidate units from the database unit selection. This process is typically achieved using a specially weighted decision tree.
Unit selection provides the greatest naturalness, because it applies only a small amount of digital signal processing DSP to the recorded speech. DSP often makes recorded speech sound less natural, although some systems use a small amount of signal processing at the point of concatenation to smooth the waveform.
The output from the best unit-selection systems is often indistinguishable from real human voices, especially in contexts for which the TTS system has been tuned. However, maximum naturalness typically require unit-selection speech databases to be very large, in some systems ranging into the gigabytes of recorded data, representing dozens of hours of speech.
The number of diphones depends on the phonotactics of the language: In diphone synthesis, only one example of each diphone is contained in the speech database. As such, its use in commercial applications is declining,[ citation needed ] although it continues to be used in research because there are a number of freely available software implementations.
Domain-specific synthesis[ edit ] Domain-specific synthesis concatenates prerecorded words and phrases to create complete utterances. It is used in applications where the variety of texts the system will output is limited to a particular domain, like transit schedule announcements or weather reports.
The level of naturalness of these systems can be very high because the variety of sentence types is limited, and they closely match the prosody and intonation of the original recordings. The blending of words within naturally spoken language however can still cause problems unless the many variations are taken into account.
Likewise in Frenchmany final consonants become no longer silent if followed by a word that begins with a vowel, an effect called liaison. This alternation cannot be reproduced by a simple word-concatenation system, which would require additional complexity to be context-sensitive.Becky's tutor has asked to to write an essay.
Her brief is to find out how to set up a health club that will be run as a business and to present her findings in an essay of between 1, and 1, This is a lesson about how to write a synthesis essay, which is an advanced type of writing whereby the writer chooses a topic, asserts a claim, selects and combines sources, then constructs an.
Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays. We have lots of essays in our essay database, so please check back here frequently to see the newest additions. INT. WELTON ACADEMY HALLWAY - DAY A young boy, dressed in a school uniform and cap, fidgets as his mother adjusts his tie.
MOTHER Now remember, keep your shoulders back. Explore timing and format for the AP English Language and Composition Exam, and review sample questions, scoring guidelines, and sample student responses. The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) was prepared according to Appendix A to the Principles Governing IPCC Work on Procedures for the Preparation, Review, Acceptance, Adoption, Approval and Publication of IPCC metin2sell.com accordance with this, the first draft of the Synthesis Report was submitted for simultaneous expert and government review.